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Here we measure the C excursions starting in the boreal summer of 774 and the boreal spring of 993 ensure the precise dating of 44 tree-ring records from five continents. We also identify a meridional decline of 11-year mean atmospheric radiocarbon concentrations across both hemispheres. The independent replication of tree-ring width measurement series therefore remains an essential element in dendrochronology, which further distinguishes our discipline from most other proxy archives for which sample size is much more restricted., whereas 993 coincided with medieval summer warmth of ~0.6 °C (relative to the 1961–90 mean climatology). Although speculative, slightly lower mean temperatures in the 770 s (compared to the 990 s) may have contributed to a larger, though insignificant (4.0‰ ± 0.4 in 774 versus 3.5‰ ± 0.7 in 993), hemispheric offset in the radiocarbon concentration (Fig. In contrast to previous, model-based assumptions from the proportionally larger SH oceans, however, calls for more research. If of sufficient amplitude, abrupt changes in the Earth’s atmospheric radiocarbon (, the extra-terrestrial origin, spatial variation and time-transgressive evolution of cosmogenic tie-points are still unknown because a spatially extensive, well-replicated network of isotopic markers across continents and hemispheres has not hitherto been available. In an unprecedented voluntary collaboration of the international tree-ring community, the COSMIC initiative gathered wood samples from the majority of the world’s longest tree-ring records, spanning the decades 770–780 and 990–1000 CE. With the individual sites being distributed between 42° S and 72° N, and ranging from around 40 to 4000 m a.s.l., COSMIC represents most of the world’s extra-tropical forest biomes. The prominent Japanese Buddhist priest Kûkai (Kôbô Dashi), born in 774, was given the official name Henshô Knonô, often translated as “worldwide shining diamond”. a person from India presented himself before the Caliph al-Mansur in the year 776 who was well versed in the siddhānta method of calculation related to the movement of the heavenly bodies, ...” refers to an aurora when talking about a red cross that appeared in the heavens after sunset between 773 and 776.

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1.8 ± 0.2 (3.2 ± 0.2) times the annual production, are needed to produce the 993 (774) anomaly (Supplementary Fig. Although our findings demonstrate accurate cross-dating of well-replicated tree-ring chronologies from around the world, they still cannot guarantee the annual precision of individual measurements from single trees (Methods). Even a 1-year dating offset would prevent any straightforward comparison of tree-growth anomalies with climate forcing agents, output from climate model simulations, climate-induced environmental responses or documented socio-economic and political changes. A prime example of such interdisciplinary cross-comparison is the cluster of large volcanic eruptions identified from ice-core anomalies in 536, 540 and 547 Common Era (CE), which coincided with rapid cooling at the onset of the Late Antique Little Ice Age (LALIA), as well as the outbreak of the Justinian Plague in 541 CE and large-scale societal transformation and human migration across much of Eurasia. Modern compact tandem accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) requires 1000-times less material and operates as precisely as some traditional decay counters C content of 30–50 mg bulk cellulose for a total of 484 tree rings. A subset of 374 rings in the 770s CE interval originates from 27 records on the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and seven records on the Southern Hemisphere (SH).

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